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1.

Over the past few years, cars have become smarter and smarter. Some of them can even drive themselves. Now, our roads have followed suit (跟着做) . In the United Kingdom alone, there are around 650 kilometers of “smart roads” in use. Across the world, many more are being built. Some new technologies are being put to use.

Roads that recharge (充电)

Global warming has made us search for new energy sources. Why not look to the roads? With the right technologies, cars around the world could be producing energy as they go. Piezoelectricity ads mix traditional asphalt (柏油) with new material. They use vibrations (振动) from passing cars to produce electricity. In fact, piezoelectricity is nothing new. It was invented in 1880. However, it has never been widely used before now. The UK’s Lancaster University is going to change that. It has been improving the technology, including developing roadside batteries that can store the electricity.

Roads that never freeze

________ A tech company in Israel has developed the Snowless roads. When they detect snow or ice on their surfaces, the roads will heat themselves up, melting the snow or ice away. The project has been successfully tested on a few Canadian roads and in some of its car parks.

Built-in brain

Roads of the future may be able to know how many people are on them. They could send them updates (实时信息) on weather and traffic jams, and recharge electric cars as they drive. This seems to be a dream, but one American company has almost made it come true. By sensing the weight of a vehicle, the company’s smart roads can track (跟踪) the speed of each wheel. “We are basically making very large touchpads,” says Tim Sylvester, CEO of the company. “but instead of looking for fingers, our roads look for tires.” After having collected traffic data, the roads will send it to the drivers.

1 According to the passage, “smart roads” ________.

A haven’t been developed yet B have made cars drive themselves

C have been widely built before D have been used in some countries

2 Which of the following sentences can be put in the “________”?

A Many people like to drive smart cars. B This kind of roads can be frozen in winter.

C It can be dangerous to drive in snowy weather D To change the common ways of driving is necessary.

4 What Tim Sylvester says is to explain ________.

A how the roads work B what the roads can do C how large the roads are D how hard they work

5 Which of the following is TRUE according to the passage?

A The UK’s Lancaster University invented piezoelectricity.

B Tim Sylvester’s company has made the large touchpads to track tires.

C The Snowless Roads have been developed by a tech company in Israel.

D One American company has built roads that could store electricity by themselves.

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知识点:科普知识与现代技术
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【答案】

1 D

2 C

3 A

4 C

【分析】

文章主要从不同的几个方面介绍了未来道路的情况。

1. 细节理解题。根据 “In the United Kingdom alone, there are around 650 kilometers of “smart roads” in use. Across the world, many more are being built.” 可知, 智能道路 在一些国家已经开始使用,故选 D

2. 推理判断题。根据 “A tech company in Israel has developed the Snowless roads. When they detect snow or ice on their surfaces, the roads will heat themselves up, melting the snow or ice away.” 可知,这里应该是说开发无雪道路的原因,应该是下雪天开车是危险的,选项 C“ 在下雪天开车可能是危险的 属于开发无雪道路的原因,故选 C

3. 细节理解题。根据 “ “We are basically making very large touchpads,” says Tim Sylvester, CEO of the company. “but instead of looking for fingers, our roads look for tires.” After having collected traffic data, the roads will send It to the drivers.” 可知, Tim  Sylvester 主要是解释道路的工作原理,故选 A

4. 推理判断题。根据 “A tech company in Israel has developed the Snowless roads.” 可知,以色列的一家科技公司开发了无雪道路,故选 C

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科普知识与现代技术
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1.

How Much Can We Afford to Forget?

In 2018, Science magazine asked some young scientists what schools should teach students. Most said students should spend less time memorizing facts and have more space for creative activities. As the Internet grows more powerful, students can access (获得) knowledge easily. Why should they be required to carry so much of it around in their heads?

Civilizations(文明)develop through forgetting life skills that were once necessary. In the Agricultural(农业的)Age, a farmer could afford to forget hunting skills. When societies industrialized, the knowledge of farming could be safe to forget. Nowadays, smart machines give us access to most human knowledge. It seems that we no longer need to remember most things. Does it matter?

Researchers have recognized several problems that may happen. For one, human beings have biases(偏见),and smart machines are likely to increase our biases. Many people believe smart machines are necessarily correct and objective, but machines are trained through a repeated testing and scoring process. In the process, human beings still decide on the correct answers.

Another problem relates to the ease of accessing information. When there were no computers, efforts were required to get knowledge from other people, or go to the library. We know what knowledge lies in other brains or books, and what lies in our heads. But today, the Internet gives us the information we need quickly. This can lead to the mistaken belief-the knowledge we found was part of what we knew all along.

In a new civilization rich in machine intelligence, we have easy access to smart memory networks where information is stored. But dependency on a network suggests possibilities of being harmed easily. The collapse of any of the networks of relations our well-being(健康)depends upon, such as food and energy, would produce terrible results. Without food we get hungry; without energy we feel cold.And it is through widespread loss of memory that civilizations are at risk of falling into a dark age.

We forget old ways to free up time and space for new skills. As long as the older forms of knowledge are stored somewhere in our networks, and can be found when we need them, perhaps they’re not really forgotten. Still, as time goes on, we gradually but unquestionably become strangers to future people.

30·Why are smart machines likely to increase our biases?

ABecause they go off course in testing and scoring.

BBecause we control the training process on them.

CBecause we offer them too much information.

DBecause they overuse the provided answers.

31The ease of accessing information from the Internet    ·

Afrees us from making efforts to learn new skills

B. prevents civilizations from being lost at a high speed

Cmisleads us into thinking we already knew the knowledge

Dseparates the facts we have from those in the smart machines

32The word "collapse" in Paragraph 5 probably means‘‘—,,·

Aa sudden failure                                         Bthe basic rule

Ca disappointing start                                   Dthe gradual development

33What is the writer's main purpose in writing this passage?

ATo question about the standards of information storage.

BTo discuss our problems of communication with machines.

CTo stress the importance of improving our memorizing ability.

DTo remind us of the risk of depending on machines to remember.

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1.

阅读短文,根据短文内容回答问题。

Huge Waves Destroying Arctic Ice Faster than Expected

Ice covers much of the Arctic Ocean(北冰洋). Some pieces of ice are huge, like moving islands. As temperatures have increased, however, some of the ice has begun to disappear. Scientists have discovered huge waves(海浪)in the arctic waters.

The waves were discovered by accident in May, 2010. Scientist Aleksey Marchenko and his students set out on a trip. They wanted to study the icy waters.

On May 2, the ship traveled east and stopped next to a large chunk of ice around 50 miles from the small island of Hopen. Marchenko prepared to lead his students out onto the Ice.

"We were ready to go but when I went out, I discovered many cracks(裂缝)around," he remembers.

He decided to move the ship deeper into the ice to keep safe. The farther in they went, he thought, the harder the ice would become. As they pushed forward, however, the ship experienced small waves, and then bigger ones. Soon, the waves broke up the ice around the ship into thousands of smaller pieces

Within an hour, Marchenko and his team saw a wave that was about 13 feet high. The ship's navigation(航行)system finally recorded the largest waves. They were more than 20 feet in height. The waves were so strong that they forced huge pieces of ice to jump up and down, breaking the ice into smaller pieces within just one hour. Scientists had never imagined that the process could happen so fast. The waves in these areas used to be small.

The speed and force of the huge waves there makes it impossible to know in advance when they are coming. That could be dangerous for navigators and local communities who are unprepared for huge waves or depend on sea ice to protect them. Wildlife like polar bears and walruses that depend on sea ice to live is also in danger.

Some scientists think people will soon see even bigger waves in these icy waters. As waves break up ice, the seas will become more open, and the waves will get even stronger. There are stormy times ahead.

34When did Marchenko and his students discover huge waves in the arctic waters?

35Why did Marchenko and his students set out on the trip?

36What did Marchenko decide to do to keep safe?

37How high were the largest waves recorded by the navigation system?

38What is Paragraph 7 mainly about?

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1.

    How did people tell the time before clocks were invented?

At first, the ancient people looked up at the sun and could tell it was the middle of the day when the sun was directly overhead in the sky. They also knew when it was morning or evening.

Later, the Egyptians used sticks. These sticks measured (测量) time during the day. The sun shone on the tall stick and the stick made a shadow (阴影). As the sun moved across the sky, the position (位置) of the shadow changed. This would let people tell what time it was.

Over time, the Chinese first used sundials instead of shadow sticks. The sundial has a type of shadow stick on it. As the sun shines on it, a shadow appears on the numbers. Each number stands for an hour of the day. But sundials don't work at night or on a cloudy day! There are no shadows unless the sun is out.

Water clocks used water to measure time at night. Water dripped (滴落) slowly from one bowl into another. The level of the water in the bowls showed the time.

People also used sand-glasses. You may have seen one. Some games still use sand-glasses. The sand falls from the top of the sand-glasses to the bottom. It measures short amounts of the time. The more sand falls, the more time has passed. When the sand has finished falling, you have to turn the sand-glasses over.

11At first, the ancient people told the time by looking at ________.

Athe stick                 Bthe shadow             Cthe sun                   Dthe moon

12Which picture can be a "sundial"?

A    B  

C  D

13Sundials can be used to tell the time when it is ________.

Asunny                    Brainy                      Ccloudy                   Dsnowy

14Which is right according to the passage?

ASticks measured time in Egypt day and night.

BSundials were first used in ancient Egypt.

CSand-glasses usually measure a long time.   

DThe water clock told the time by the water level in the bowls.

15What's the main idea of the passage?

ASomething about sundials.                         

BHow to tell the time by looking at the sun.

CHow to tell the time in the past.                  

DSome inventions in China.

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1.

quiet, they, strong, interest, two, like, unless, choice, but, if, how

The secrets of self-control

A new book, the bestseller, Willpower, says that having strong willpower (意志力) is necessary to a successful life.

The book starts by describing a famous experiment: The Marshmallow (软糖) Test. In 1972, a psychology (心理学) professor Mischel tested the willpower of 600 kids. In the experiment, each child was left alone in a room for fifteen minutes with a marshmallow on a table in front of 26. They were given two 27: they could either eat the marshmallow or, if they waited fifteen minutes, they’d be given a 28marshmallow (and then they could eat both).

So, what did the kids do? 70% ate the first marshmallow within the fifteen minutes,29the other 30% showed willpower they didn’t eat the first one and waited for the second marshmallow 30.

Twenty years later, Mischel discovered something 31. He got in touch with the children and found that those with strong willpower were getting better marks at university, were better behaved and were more popular. So,32 important it is to have strong willpower!

But don’t worry 33 you aren’t good at controlling yourself. The authors say that willpower is like a muscle (肌肉). The more you exercise it, the 34 it gets. However, just 35 any muscle, your “willpower muscle” can get tired. So, if you have to do lots of things that need willpower, take a break. That way, you’ll build up your willpower again.

Lastly, the authors mention that people who learn foreign languages usually have a lot of willpower. So, congratulations!

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